Heilongjiang (simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; pinyin: Hēilóngjiāng Shěng; Postal map spelling: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑 (pinyin: Hēi). The Manchu name of the region is Sahaliyan ula(literally, "Black River"), from which the name of Sakhalin is derived, and the Mongolian name accordingly is Qaramörin.
Heilongjiang borders Jilin in the south and Inner Mongolia to the west; it also borders Russia to the north and east.
The Amur River marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia to the north. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe County along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers).